Chemical engineering

1. Aerosol-assisted synthesis and characterization of simple and composite silicon nitride Si3N4-based nanopowders

Supervisor: dr hab. inż. Cezary Czosnek

Department of Fuels Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels

Summary of research problem: The proposed study covers the preparation and complex characterization of silicon nitride Si3N4-based nanopowders by the unique in Poland and very advantageous aerosol-assisted synthesis method applied to selected liquid organosilicon precursors under nitrogen or ammonia atmosphere. Due to its relatively high chemical resistance and hardness, silicon nitride has found important applications in the automotive industry as material for engine parts (glow-plugs, pre-combustion chambers, turbocharges, valves). The nitride’s insulating and hardness properties are used to make ceramic bearings, especially, if electric and magnetic fields and corrosive environment prevent from the application of metal bearings. The material is utilized to make cutting and abrasive tools. Some high temperature resistant parts of rocket engines as well as orthopaedic elements in medicine are also made of silicon nitride. Summarizing, the utilization of the relatively simple aerosol-assisted synthesis method and relevant instrumentation available in the Faculty of Energy and Fuels can result in the preparation of nitride nanopowders of great potential applications in technology.

Research facilities: Faculty of Energy and Fuels has a complete apparatus set to realize a two-stage aerosol-assisted synthesis method and the preparation of nanopowders from liquid and/or soluble in definite solvents precursors. The major elements of the set include two high-temperature tube furnaces equipped with replaceable ceramic tube reactors (there is also available an Inconel reactor), various aerosol-generating devices, and the gas-tight nylon collection filter. The person in charge of the set maintenance and current use is the listed research advisor – dr hab. inż. Cezary Czosnek. The following analytical instrumentation is available in the Faculty: Nicolet 380 FT-IR spectrometer (Thermo Electron Corporation), Lambda 35 Perkin-Elmer UV-vis spectrophotometer, Micromeritics Gemini V apparatus for low temperature nitrogen adsorption studies of porous materials, atomic adsorption Hitachi Z-2000 AA spectrophotometer, PANalytical XRF Epsilon spectrometer, and PANalytical XRD Empyrean diffractometer. This will guarantee the on-site collection of a significant share of materials analytical work-out.

Number of places: 1

 

2. New catalysts for the hydrotreating process - hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodesulphurization and hydrodenitrogenation liquid products of biomass processing.

Supervisor: dr hab. inż. Marek Lewandowski

Department of Fuels Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels

Summary of research problem: Increasing requirements as to the content of bio-components in modern commercial fuels force us to look for new technologies of manufacturing of diesel, as well as aviation fuels based on hydroconversion process of bio-oils. Biodiesel as a substitute of conventional hydrocarbon liquid fuels has been developed over the last decade. However, the first generation biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) with high oxygen content is inconvenient in the large-scale use due to its incompatibility with hydrocarbon fuels. As a result, the technologies of manufacturing of "green biodiesel" (being a second generation fuel) produced from catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) are systematically developed. Biodiesel after the HDO process, exhibits many advantages, it is similar to hydrocarbon fuel (bio-hydrocarbons) as to the chemical composition, and thus can be used directly in the fuel industry. In addition, developing biomass processing technologies, such as for example the pyrolysis of lignocellulose for bio-oils, is indispensably linked to catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Therefore, new highly active catalysts for HDO reaction are being sought for the purposes of production of high quality bio-hydrocarbons.

Research facilities: The Department has the necessary research equipment to perform the research task. In particular, this applies to the possibility of performing catalytic tests of the activity of the tested catalysts under the real conditions of the hydrotreating process. These tests will be carried out on catalytic microreactor installation together with the analysis of products on GC-MS. The basic physicochemical characterization of the catalysts will be carried out on the following equipment available at the AGH University of Science and Technology: XRD, FT-IR, BET surface area measurements, elemental analysis, XPS.

Number of places: 2

3. Synthesis and characteristic of Ca-Al-Si glasses as potential cementitious materials.

Supervisor: prof. dr hab. inż. Jan Deja

Auxiliary supervisor: dr inż. Radosław Mróz

Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics

Abstract: The PhD project focuses on the development of the innovative artificial mine/secondary cementitious materials based on calcium aluminosilicate glasses. The incentive for this is that simultaneously with the increase in world demand for cement, a decrease in the availability of traditionally used SCMs such as fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag materials is observed in some parts of the world, such as Europe. Therefore, the further development of composite cements is difficult. An important consideration in developing new types of cements containing synthetic glasses is that these cements must ensure the existing physical-mechanical parameters and even improve the physical-mechanical parameters of cements produced with their participation in relation to traditionally produced composite cements. The huge role in solving the problems of raw materials in the production of cement binders play European Trading System which radically limits the possibility of CO2 emissions in industrial processes of cement clinkers production. The fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag cements are used already are widely studied. Simultaneously there exists very little published data on the performance of the synthetic aluminosilicate glasses in cement. There remain many aspects not yet understood and questions to be answered, especially the correlation between the glass composition, synthesis conditions and the reactivity of the synthetic glasses what is the mine aim of this project/study.

Research facilities: The project will be implemented in cooperation with Heidelberg Cement Technology Center. Syntheses of aluminosilicate glasses will be performed at the AGH University of Science and Technology, where the preliminary analysis of synthesis effects and physico-chemical characteristics of the obtained glasses will be carried out. In the next stages, the research works will focus on the assessment of reactivity of the obtained glasses and the possibility of their application in the production of new composite cements. The works will be divided between AGH University of Science and Technology and Heidelberg Cement Technology Center. For its part, Heidelberg Cement Technology Center will also supply the necessary raw materials for testing, as well as an internship for a PhD candidate in their Research Centre. These costs will be covered by the Heidelberg Cement Technology Center.

Number of places: 1

 

4. Application of modified film electrodes for screening of drugs used to modify a person’s behaviour for criminal intent.

Supervisor: dr hab. Agnieszka Królicka

Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics

Abstract: Active substances of drugs used to modify a person’s behaviour for criminal intent are well soluble in water, colourless, tasteless and odourless and therefore can be added to drinks of unsuspecting victims. A victim being under the influence of such mind-altering substances is incapacitated and what follows is anterograde amnesia. One idea to prevent such chemical submission related crime is to use specially designed dye sensors like cups, straws or mats. Unfortunately, the sensitivity of such detectors is often not sufficient and their response not specific enough. Next, they fail in the case of coloured or turbid drinks and juices of low pH. Although some tests are sensitive to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid or ketamine they fail to detect potent sedative benzodiazepine drugs like flunitrazepam. However, benzodiazepines contain an imine functional group >C=N-, which is reduced during voltammetry. Current occurring during the electroreduction of the imine group, which takes place in the range of negative potentials, can be therefore employed for the determination of benzodiazepines by means of metallic or various carbon electrodes. Consequently, it seems feasible to develop small, portable testing units (similar to glucose meters) equipped with a miniaturised potentiostat and planar electrodes sensitive and selective towards such narcotic substances. Screen printed electrodes and electrodes with sensing layers obtained by physical or chemical deposition from vapour phase can be especially useful for this purpose. The sensitivity and selectivity of such sensors is easily controlled or amplified by the deposition of modifying layers. Additionally, the automation of manufacturing processes offers good electrode-to-electrode reproducibility and would reduce unit cost.

Research facilities: The analytical laboratory is equipped in modern electrochemical analysers (AUTOLAB, EAGRAPH) for voltammetric and chronopotentiometric measurements and a compatible quartz microbalance. Optical microscope (Motic Microscope) and optical tensiometer (Theta Lite) are also available. For dispersions preparation we have high intensity ultrasonic processor (Vibra-Cell Ultrasonic Liquid Processors, Sonic, USA) at our disposal. The Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics is equipped with the following high-quality devices: high-quality scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopes (FTIR), and a Raman spectroscope, X-Ray diffractometers (XRD) which may be used for the investigation of the morphology and/or topography of electrode surfaces.

Number of places: 1

 

5. Corrosion mechanism of cement-free corundum-spinel castables in contact with the steel slag.

Supervisor: dr hab. inż. Zbigniew Pędzich, prof. AGH

Auxiliary supervisor: dr inż. Dominika Madej

Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics

Abstract: The presented research issue concerns the development of corrosion resistance of cement-free refractory corundum-spinel castables in contact with steel slag. The main scientific goal of the work is to recognize and explain the mechanism of corrosion phenomena occurring in the systems of Al2O3-spinel refractory concrete / corrosive agents from the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-Fe2O3-MnO system. The work concerns the following issues: determination of structural changes of refractory castables components as a result of corrosive reactions with slag components, determination of the effect of time and temperature on refractory wear mechanism and thermodynamics analysis of multiphase systems and processes using computational software.

Research facilities: This PhD thesis is founded by The National Centre for Research and Development within the framework of LIDER VIII project No. LIDER/5/0034/L-8/16/NCBR/2017. Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics has at one’s disposal the technical resources necessary to conduct this kind of research work, including laboratories for preparing of castables, preparing samples, corrosion tests, and measuring apparatus. The main technical resources at the disposal of the Faculty are: laboratory for thermal analysis and mass spectrometry, microstructural research laboratory, ultrasonic testing laboratory, X-ray diffractometry laboratory, scanning microscopy and microanalysis laboratory, FTIR spectroscopy and Raman laboratory, thermophysical measurements laboratory, laboratory of refractories corrosion testing. Supervisors have experience and scientific achievements in the field of the proposed research topic.

Number of places: 1

 

6. The effect of spinel stoichiometry on the properties of corundum-spinel castables.

Supervisor: dr hab. inż. Zbigniew Pędzich, prof. AGH

Auxiliary supervisor: dr inż. Dominika Madej

Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics

Abstract: The presented research issue concerns the shaping of structural, physical and technological properties of cement-free refractory castables by the practical use of knowledge in the field of materials science, ceramics processes and technology of advanced ceramic materials, especially refractories. The main goals of this research work is to determine the formation mechanism of spinel phases with different stoichiometry in refractory castables, also to determine the effect of selected parameters, including temperature and sintering time, as well as the grain size of the spinel precursors, on the spinel synthesis produced by the in situ reaction of alumina with magnesia and properties of final product.

Research facilities: This PhD thesis is founded by The National Centre for Research and Development within the framework of LIDER VIII project No. LIDER/5/0034/L-8/16/NCBR/2017. Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics has at one’s disposal the technical resources necessary to conduct this kind of research work, including laboratories for preparing of castables and preparing samples, and measuring apparatus. The main technical resources at the disposal of the Faculty are: laboratory for thermal analysis and mass spectrometry, microstructural research laboratory, ultrasonic testing laboratory, X-ray diffractometry laboratory, scanning microscopy and microanalysis laboratory, FTIR spectroscopy and Raman laboratory, thermophysical measurements laboratory. Supervisors have experience and scientific achievements in the field of the proposed research topic.

Number of places: 1

 

7. Glassy sulfur carriers for agrotechnical applications.

Supervisor: dr hab. inż. Magdalena Szumera

Auxiliary supervisor: dr inż. Justyna Sułkowska

Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics

Abstract: The goal of the project is development of chemical compositions and synthesis methods of the multicomponent silicate-phosphate glasses containing sulphur, which have a feature of controlled chemical activity in the soil solutions. It has been assumed that there are correlations between a structural role of sulphur in the silicate-phosphate glass structure and their chemical activity. Sulfur is one of the elements that perform the most important biochemical and physiological role in the plant. Sulphur, apart from being a necessary component for growth and development of plants, influences their higher resistance to various pathogens. The problem of sulhur deficiencies in the soil can be solved by be glassy materials with properly designed chemical compositions. The lack of this element can be caused by the use of traditional mineral fertilizers that are too soluble in water. Glassy materials, as potential mineral fertilizers, could introduce sulfur into soils in a slow and controlled manner. This will be obtained by choosing the chemical composition of the glasses and by the ability of various plant species to absorb sulfur. Therefore, scientific research in the proposed studies issue will include multi-composition glasses with a silicate-phosphate matrix modified with the addition of sulfur and a number of other elements (K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe), which are also plant nutrients. The results of the conducted examinations can be the basis for the development of the technology of completely new, unconventional, glassy fertilizers.

Research facilities: The glasses will be obtained by the traditional high-temperature melting of glass-making batches constituting the mixture of raw materials introducing suitable components into the glass structure. Formation of the sulphur-bearing silicate-phosphate glasses and their homogeneity will be confirmed by XRD and SEM EDS methods, respectively. Chemical composition of the glasses will be controlled by XRF method. Density of the glasses will be determined by helium pycnometer. The structural role of sulphur in the glasses will be subjected of spectroscopic (MIR, Raman Spectroscopy and MAS NMR) and thermal (DSC) methods. The quantity of individual ions of particular elements that release from the glass structure under the action of different solutions, simulating the conditions of soil environment will be investigated using ICP-AES method. The mechanism of solubility of the glasses in the solutions simulating natural soil environment as well as after their incubation in the soils differing in physico-chemical properties will be determined by analyzing changes of their surface using SEM-EDS method.The influence of sulphur oxidation state on network structural changes of the silicate-phosphate glasses will be discussed in the context of their chemical activity. Most of the methods discussed above can be made at WIMiC AGH. In the case of MAS-NMR and ICP-AES tests, cooperation with the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Krakow and WGGiOŚ AGH will be necessary. Scheduled tests will be partially carried out as part of the SONATA 14 project.

Number of places: 1

 

8. Development of an innovative technology for purification of waste glycerol, animal and UCO origin to distilled quality of glycerol 99.7%, potentially possible to be used as raw material in the process of hydrogenation to 1,2-propanediol.

Supervisor: dr hab. inż. Marek Lewandowski

Faculty of Energy and Fuels

Abstract: The subject of the work will be the development of an innovative technology for purification of animal and UCO origin waste glycerol to distilled product with quality 99.7%, potentially used as a raw material in the process of hydrogenation to 1,2-propanediol. The innovation of the solution is the development of a technology currently unavailable on the market that will allow for the purifying of waste glycerol produced on the biodiesel production plant in ORLEN Południe to high purity 99.7%. The technology will be different from conventional due to the use of a completely different, highly contaminated raw material and different process characteristics. Glycerin of UCO and animal origin is produced from the processing of used vegetable oils and animal fats and contains various amounts of impurities, mainly metallic, sulfur, chlorine and phosphorus. It is related to the variable quality of UCO and animal fats used in the production of esters and glycerol. Research work will allow for qualitative and quantitative determination of pollutants and implementation of a solution based on the removal of impurities through the use of innovative technological solutions. As part of the work a laboratory installation for the purification of glycerin will be designed where the research works will be carried out. In order to verify the quality of purified glycerol, besides physicochemical analyzes, it is planned to do tests on designed laboratory installation for the catalytic hydrogenation of glycerol to 1,2-propanediol. Propylene glycol will be tested using physicochemical methods for the presence of contaminants and it has been verified the effect of the glycerol (raw material) on catalyst lifetime and proper operation of the catalyst in the hydrogenation process.

Research facilities: ORLEN Południe S.A. has access to the necessary components of the laboratory installation for the glycerin purification process and hydrogenation of glycerin to propylene glycol where research works will be carried out. Part of the physicochemical analysis of raw materials and products will be carried out in the company from ORLEN Capital Group - ORLEN Laboratorium and at AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Fuels Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels.

Number of places: 1

 

9. The impact of a drive type on the emission and physical and chemical properties of solid particles in the aspect of their reduction using a modified gasoline particulate filter (GPF).

Supervisor: prof. dr hab. Janusz Gołas

Auxiliary supervisor: dr inż. Katarzyna Szramowiat

Faculty of Energy and Fuels

Abstract: According to previous studies presented in the scientific literature of the world, the process of filtration of particulates generated in gasoline engines in itself may be insufficient to detoxify gasoline exhausts. GPF filters significantly reduce the number of emitted particles (the so-called PN parameter). Hence the conduction of further research on modification of currently used gasoline particulate filters in order to increase their effectiveness in flue gas purification, with particular attention to removing organic chemicals with complex structures dangerous for the respiratory system, i.e. nitro and oxygen derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro - and oxy-WWA) is a necessity. The research includes the following activities:

A. Measurements of exhausts toxicity from gasoline engines with various fuel supply systems equipped and not equipped with GPF.

B. Investigations of physicochemical properties of solid particles.

C. Laboratory tests of physicochemical properties of the used gasoline particulate filter.

D. Chemical modification of the surface of the gasoline particulate filter in order to increase the efficiency of the GPF filter in the gasoline detoxification process and in terms of its applicability in gasoline engines with indirect fuel injection into the combustion chamber.

E. Developing a prototype of a modified particulate filter.

F. Exhaust toxicity and physicochemical properties of particulates emitted from engines with various gasoline injection systems into the combustion chamber with a modified gasoline particulate filter.

The obtained test results will be an indication for modifying the structure of commercially available gasoline particulate filters in order to increase their selectivity and sensitivity towards pollutants, which are not reduced by currently used filters, and thus to reduce the impact of solid particles on health and the environment.

Research facilities: Department of Chemistry of Coal and Environmental Sciences at the Faculty of Energy and Fuels of AGH and BOSMAL Institute, where the doctoral dissertation will be implemented, have available research infrastructure allowing for implementation of activities as part of the doctoral thesis. The equipment of the Environmental Research Laboratory at the Department of Chemistry of Coal and Environmental Sciences includes: gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography with UV detection, isocratic ion chromatography, UV-vis spectrometer, all equipment necessary for sample preparation. The BOSMAL Institute has a modern research and measurement equipment for conducting research and construction and computational works in the field of motorization, and first of all in the field of exhaust toxicity tests on chassis dynamometers (2 stations) and engine dynamometers (20 positions). Each of the stands is equipped with equipment of the highest quality, used to measure emissions regulated by European, American and Japanese legislation. All laboratories are certified laboratories. In addition, the BOSMAL Institute also has a well-equipped chemical laboratory, including scanning electron microscope and ICP-MS. On June 17, 2019, a pre-study project entitled "The effect of the type of vehicle drive on the emission and physicochemical properties of solid particles in terms of further evaluation of their reduction potential using a modified particulate filter" was applied within the competition "Preludium" announced by the National Science Center. In addition, it is planned to obtain financing from other sources, including National Center for Research and Development or EU structural funds.

Number of places: 1

 

10. Development of technology and implementation in the cement kiln system a thermal process for processing waste gypsum from flue gas desulphurisation (FGD-gypsum) into an anhydrite binder used for the floor screed production..

Supervisor: prof. dr hab. inż. Wiesława Nocuń-Wczelik

Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics

Abstract: Development of installation for flue gas desulphurisation in power plants and heat and power plants using the wet lime method resulted creation of large amounts of desulfogypsum CaSO4 . 2H2O (FGD-gypsum) in Poland, which part is used for the construction gypsum (CaSO4 . ½H2O) production and as a setting time regulator in the cement industry. Another option for processing FGD-gypsum is convert it to anhydrite II, a bonding material with much better parameters than construction gypsum, which is the basic binder in the production of dry mixes or floor screed. Synthetic anhydrite II, produced at a much higher temperature than construction gypsum is not produced in Poland. Plants designed for the production of anhydrite II can be found mainly in Western European countries like Germany, France, England or Spain. Conclusions from the University studies and project study made indicate the possibility of starting such production in a cement kiln installation. The development of such technology should be preceded by studies and to define process parameters how calcined FGD-gypsum.

Research facilities: Lafarge Cement S.A. is part of the global LafargeHolcim Group. The organization structure of Lafarge laboratories in Poland is based mainly on three Concrete Research Centers: Concrete Research Center Małogoszcz, Concrete Research Center Kujawy, and the Central Concrete Laboratory Warsaw. The team of these laboratories perform basic and specialized tests in accordance with applicable standards, and the subject of research is respectively: concrete and anhydrite mixtures, hardened concrete and anhydrite floor foundations, prefabricated elements, aggregates and soils. Polish laboratories are supported by the European research center: LafargeHolcim Innovation Center, 95 Rue du Montmurier, BP 15 38291 Saint-Quentin Fallavier, France. As part of its activity, the company cooperates closely with the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Glass and Building Materials Department in Kraków which belongs to the Łukasiewicz Research Network and the Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics at the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow.

Number of places: 1

 

11. Analysis of the method and conditions impact for the activated carbons preparation from biomass materials on the their porous structure formation

Supervisor: dr hab. inż. Mirosław Kwiatkowski

Faculty of Energy and Fuels

Abstract: The scientific aim of this research topic is to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the influence of the method and conditions of production of active carbons from biomass materials on the formation of their porous structure and to explain the physicochemical mechanisms occurring during individual stages of the preparation and their influence on the adsorption properties of the materials obtained. Continuous development of science and constantly growing areas of applications of carbon adsorbents, such as activated carbon, make it necessary to constantly improve not only the methods of their preparation, but also comprehensive basic research, the aim of which is to determine and explain the mechanisms and physicochemical phenomena occurring at the various stages of obtaining these materials. It is also necessary to develop appropriate relationships between these complex phenomena and processes, enabling the prediction of these mechanisms and the adsorption properties of activated carbons obtained by means of given methods and under specific conditions of practical chemistry from given raw materials. Very important for the development of basic research in the field of adsorption and physicochemistry of surface phenomena will be the work foreseen in this project of analysis of the correctness of assumptions and models of adsorption process in various methods of analysis, from the simplest methods to advanced methods based on the density functional theory, or computer methods based on complex mathematical models and using numerical methods.

Research facilities: Research will be carried out both in domestic and foreign cooperation with renowned research centres will include among others the preparation of activated carbons using selected methods in various conditions of the practical chemistry and their analysis. It should be emphasized that the work prior to this research topic has been very well evaluated, as can be seen among other things, accepting them for publication in reputable journals, which is a solid basis for this research topic.

Number of places: 1

 

12. Analysis of the impact of methods and preparation conditions on the formation of microporous structure of activated carbons used in gas stream cleaning processes

Supervisor: dr hab. inż. Mirosław Kwiatkowski

Faculty of Energy and Fuels

Abstract: The aim of the research planned under this project is a comprehensive analysis of the impact methods and conditions of preparation of activated carbons from a variety of materials including biomass-derived raw materials for the formation of microporous structures using advanced numerical tools. In this study they will be analyzed as opportunities to optimize the process of preparation of activated carbons for obtaining adsorbents with specific, assumed characteristics required in the process and will be developed a unique computer system is the selection of the optimal method, raw material and operating conditions preparation of activated carbons for obtaining a material with specific properties required in gas stream cleaning processes. The results obtained in this project will allow to better understand the mechanisms of the phenomena occurring during the process of carbonization and activation of both physical and chemical, through, inter alia, the use of advanced analysis tools microporous structure. In turn, this knowledge will allow for reliable and optimal selection of the appropriate method and conditions of preparation of activated carbons from a given raw material in order to obtain material with suitable parameters of porous structure and utility properties, taking also into account the financial aspects, environmental and energy. The test results obtained under this project also will provide a basis for developing new preparation methods of carbon adsorbents or modification and improvement of existing methods.

Research facilities: Research will be carried out both in domestic and foreign cooperation with renowned research centres will include among others the preparation of activated carbons using selected methods in various conditions of the practical chemistry and their analysis. It should be emphasized that the work prior to this project has been very well evaluated, as can be seen among other things, accepting them for publication in reputable international journals, which is a guarantee conduct of the planned research successfully.

Number of places: 1

 

13. Analysis of ecotoxic elements behavior during solid fuel conversion processes concerning lowering of their emission to the environment.

Supervisor: dr hab. inż. Piotr Burmistrz

Auxiliary supervisor: dr inż. Tadeusz Dziok, dr inż. Krzysztof Kogut

Faculty of Energy and Fuels

Abstract: Coal and lignite used in conversion processes (combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis) contain so called ecotoxic elements. These include mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead. During conversion of solid fuels these elements undergo physicochemical transformations and are distributed among products of a given process. Thus, combustion, gasification and pyrolysis processes result in emitting these highly toxic elements to the environment. The reduction of this emission is a priority for countries, which economy uses solid fuels to a large extent (for example: China, USA, India, Germany, and Poland). Efficient reduction and subsequent elimination of ecotoxic elements emission will be possible by knowing:

(i) forms of ecotoxic elements occurrence in solid fuels,

(ii) behavior of ecotoxic elements during solid fuels conversion processes,

(iii) behavior of ecotoxic elements during flue gas processing,

(iv) behavior of ecotoxic elements during their separation using active methods,

(v) qualitative and quantitative correlations between fuel parameters and distribution of ecotoxic elements between products of a given process,

(vi) qualitative and quantitative correlations between fuel parameters and speciation as well as emission of ecotoxic elements and their compounds

The aim of the research within this issue is to gain knowledge on abovementioned topics.

Research facilities: Solid sample pre-processing lab; Solid fuel analysis labs (Eltra CHS-580, TGA Thermostep (Eltra), calorimeter AC-350 Leco, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with energy dispersion EDXRF PANalytical Epsilon 3, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ZSX Primus II (Rigaku), atomic absorption spectrometer DMA 80, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Zeeman polarization Hitachi Z-2000); Flue gas sampling kits (US EPA + Ontario Hydro); Alternative fuel and waste lab within the AGH Energy Centre

Founding sources: Research subvention of the AGH University of Science and Technology; The LIDER project financed by the National Centre for Research and Development (optional – depending on the financing decision)

Number of places: 3

 

14. Examination of the gasification process of coal sludge and waste.

Supervisor: dr inż. Grzegorz Czerski

Auxiliary supervisor: dr inż. Katarzyna Śpiewak

Faculty of Energy and Fuels

Abstract: The scientific aim of the reported research topic is an assessment of the possibility of using difficult to utilise coal sludge and waste in the gasification process and, as a result, obtaining a valuable gaseous product in an ecological way. The gasification process is classified as so-called Clean Coal Technologies that enable efficient and environmentally friendly use of coal fuels. Low-quality coal fuels also include coal sludge and waste, characterised by low calorific value as well as high contents of moisture and mineral matter. The planned works will consist of studies of coal waste available in the country in terms of their use in the gasification process (in particular determination of their reactivity) as well as determination of kinetics of the gasification process in various conditions and the quality of the resulting gas. The assessment of usefulness of coal sludge and waste for the gasification process will be performed on the basis of their comprehensive research, i.e. proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility analyses, assessment of harmful components content, determination of their reactivity and kinetics of the gasification process, as well as designation of yields and compositions of the gas formed during the process.

Research facilities: The research will be implemented at the Faculty of Energy and Fuels of AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. All works included in the research plan will be implemented at AGH-UST. The following devices can be used to perform the experimental part: Unique pressure laboratory equipment for investigation of kinetics of gasification process by thermovolumetric method, Pressurised Thermogravimetric Analyzer by Rubotherm for investigation of kinetics of gasification process, Moisture analyser for assessment of kinetics of drying process.

Moreover, the Faculty of Energy and Fuels AGH-UST has access to the following equipment, which may be used during the research: equipment for samples preparation (mill, etc.) thermogravimetric analyser Eltra Thermostep – proximate analysis (content of moisture, volatile matter, ash), Leco AC 350 calorimeter – calorific value, CHS 580 Eltra analyser – ultimate analysis, Ash Fusion Test Furnace Carbolite - ash fusibility analysis, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) Hitachi Z-2000 - chemical composition of ash, including ecotoxic elements, DMA 80 analyser - analysis of mercury content, a set of gas chromatographs Clarus 580 by Perkin Elmer, equipped with FID, TCD and FPD detectors - analysis of gases generated in the process, a set of gas chromatographs by Hewlett Packard equipped with FID and TCD detectors - analysis of gases generated in the process, Infrared gas analyser from Fuji Electric System – gas composition analysis, X-ray fluorescence ED-XRF Spectrometer (non-destructive method) – analysis of the elemental composition of the material.

Number of places: 1

 

15. Optical active glass and glass-ceramic materials for optoelectronics.

Supervisor: dr hab. inż. Marcin Środa, prof. AGH

Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics

Abstract: The work is devoted to study novel glass and glass-ceramics demonstrating luminescence properties. Subjects of the scientific work are following: glass developing, structure study, finding correlation between chemical composition and properties, glass-ceramics fabrication, analysis of crystallites and influence of structure on optical properties. Testing methods being involved in research: DTA/DSC, XRD, FT-IR, spectrophotometry

Research facilities: The statutory funds of WIMiC, AGH

Number of places: 1