The list of topics for the entry exam to the AGH Doctoral School in discipline Sociology

  • Positivism and sociology in the August Comte system (positive method, classification of sciences, statics and dynamics, the law of three stages).
  • Herbert Spencer's sociology system (society as an organism, theory of social organization, typology of societies).
  • Political sociology of Alexis de Tocquevilla (democracy and aristocracy as types of societies, democratic society and dangers of "new despotism").
  • Historical materialism of Karl Marx (the phenomenon of alienation, social classes and class structure, the concept of social development and revolution).
  • Sociology of Emil Durkheim (society as a sui generis reality, social facts and principles of their study).
  • Forms of social integration in the sociology of Emil Durkheim (theory of religion, mechanical and organic solidarity, suicide as a social fact, the concept of anomie).
  • Psychological theory of society and human activities of Vilfred Pareto (logical and non-logical activities, the concept of residences and derivations, the elite's circulation theory).
  • Anti-positivist breakthrough in social sciences; the concept of humanistic sociology (anti-naturalism, interactionism, the postulate of "understanding").
  • The concept of "formal" sociology of Georg Simmel (the concept of society, content and social form, social conflict and its functions).
  • Sociology understood by Max Weber (concept of social activities and their division, ideal types).
  • Power, rule, legitimacy and state in the sociology of Max Weber's policy (three pure types of reign).
  • New and old social movements
  • Feminism (differences between waves)
  • Vision of history and the genesis of capitalism in the Max Weber concept (rationalization process, Protestant ethics, bureaucratization).
  • Weberian view of social structure (classes, states, parties).
  • Social pragmatism in American sociology (social thought by William James, John Dewey and Charles H. Cooley, the concept of primitive groups).
  • Symbolic interactionism of Georg H. Mead (gestures and significant symbols, the concept of the mind, the social concept of the self).
  • Humanist sociology of Florian Znaniecki (source of sociological material, humanistic coefficient).
  • Functionalism as a theoretical-methodological orientation. The classic sociological functionalism of Talcott Parsons.
  • Examples of functional theories. Functional analysis of Robert Merton. Functional stratification theory of Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore?
  • Neofunctionalism - characteristics (N. Luhmann's concept, J. Alexander's theory).
  • Differences and similarities between the "dialectical" conflict model of Ralf Dahrendorf and the "functional" conflict model of Lewis Coser.
  • Critical theory of society - characteristics and representatives. Theory of M. Foucault, theory of J. Habermas, feminist theories - main assumptions.
  • Utilitarian sociologies - characteristics.
  • Behaviorism of exchange in the sense of George C. Homans and structuralism of the exchange in the perspective of Peter M. Blau.
  • Theories of the rational choice of Michael Hechter and James Coleman.
  • Neo-institutional approach in social sciences.
  • Sociobiology and evolutionary psychology - characteristics.
  • Diversity of interpretive sociology. Common assumptions and areas of contention in various trends of symbolic interactionism
  • Methodology of grounded theory.
  • Main assumptions of phenomenological sociology of A. Schutz.
  • Ethnomethodology - assumptions, methodology and representatives.
  • Sociological thought of Pierre Bourdieu.
  • Theory of structure - characteristics.
  • A naturalistic and anti-naturalistic perspective and its consequences for methodological orientation in sociology.
  • Method and research technique.
  • Functions of scientific research in sociology.
  • The role of empathic introspection (internal experience) in research practice.
  • Conceptualization of research: basic elements.
  • Operationalization and operational definitions.
  • Indicators. Types of indicators in sociological research. The power of indicators.
  • Measurement. The essence of measurement in sociological research. Measuring scales.
  • Relevance and reliability of measurement. Selected methods for determining the accuracy and reliability of measurement tools.
  • Application of scales in sociological research. Examples of measuring scales.
  • Questionnaire of the interview and questionnaire in quantitative sociological research.
  • A qualitative approach in sociological research.
  • Quantitative approach in sociological research.
  • The problem of representative research: random and non-random samples.
  • Experiment as a research method: laboratory experiment and natural experiment.
  • Content analysis and content analysis.
  • Consumption and macdonaldyzation.
  • Diversity and social inequalities: inequalities and social inequalities, sources of social inequalities, social stratification, social strata, social mobility, open and closed societies, social classes, underclass, contemporary types of social diversity - cognitariat, digitariat, digital gap.
  • Poverty and social exclusion: absolute and relative poverty, official statistics of poverty and subjective assessment of poverty, various explanations of the causes of poverty, social exclusion (economic, political, social) and its forms.
  • The nation as an object of interest to sociology: the nation and the ethnic group, the types of ethnic groups, national movements in Europe and the formation of nation states, multinational states and multiethnic nations, ethnic conflicts, ethnic and national minorities.
  • Social change, social change and development and progress, collective actions, mass actions, social movements.
  • Types of societies (traditional, industrial, post-industrial), theories of modernization, convergence and dependence, globalization.
  • Confidence and social capital: trust and distrust (their structural and subjective sources), types of social capital, light and dark sides of social capital.
  • The subject of research interests in sociology; definitions of sociology; functions and importance of sociology in social life and institutionalization of sociology scientific discourse.
  • Social group and social bond - definitions, types, basic elements necessary for the creation and existence of a group, intra-group structures.
  • Forms of human social activity: behavior, action, social interaction, social relation.
  • The family as a small social group and a primitive group, contemporary changes of the family and its functions.
  • Formal organizations: formal formal groups, bureaucracy, pathologies of formal organizations.
  • what are the social and cultural contexts of innovation processes?
  • How are science, technology and society interlinked?
  • What is a post-industrial society?
  • What is the role of experts in making political decisions. Technocrats say their judgments are worthless; the technical elite is allegedly non-political, how do you rate this picture?
  • How can both experts and citizens contribute to better policy decisions and?
  • What decision-making processes and what technological policies can contribute to improving environmental conditions?
  • What are the human costs of technology
  • Technology leads to a rational and effective organization that requires fragmentation, specialization, speed, maximization of performance. Should productivity be seen as a good growth rate?
  • Is the technology controlled?
  • What is the role of technology in the process of employee alienation in the modern world?
  • If and how does technology influence religious life?
  • What is the technological determinism?
  • Why do you think GMOs caused strong social resistance?
  • Do you think that the public understands the risks associated with GMO food?
  • Technology and everyday life - what effect does a mobile phone have on everyday life?
  • Is it possible to design a mobile phone and use it in a way that reduces the risk of use?
  • What is sustainable development?
  • Can society develop and be considered sustainable at the same time?
  • Are deliberative institutions the right solution to problems related to environmental justice?
  • What are the basic technological and cultural factors that make an electric car more popular with potential users?
  • Can discrimination be recognised in science?
  • What do you think that affirmation programs should be present during admissions to university? If so, who should apply?
  • How has the public mission of the university changed?
  • What should the university mission be?
  • Do you agree with the statement that higher education is more business oriented?
  • What is the impact of free and independent media on democracy?
  • Can the Internet solve the problem of media consolidation or is it subject to the same consolidation process?
  • How to build involved local media?
  • What is the role of the media in creating public understanding of science?
  • What is the role of experts in presenting technological / scientific issues?
  • What do you think about open-source licenses?
  • Was the vision of "free software" successful?
  • How would you define privacy?
  • What do you think about privacy in the sense of data collected about you while surfing the Internet should be a commodity, not a right?
  • What is the problem of security and privacy with regard to privacy related to private companies and utilities?
  • What do you think about the development of car traffic in cities?
  • Do you think public transport in cities should be subsidised?
  • How can public transport be designed to be more ecologically sustainable and less susceptible to a terrorist attack?