Knowledge expected from all candidates
The domain range of "biomedical engineering". Concepts of: biocybernetic model, simulation of biological system and examples of their application to selected problems of biology and medicine. The role of biocybernetics and biomedical engineering in progress of technology, biology and medical sciences as well as civilization achievements.
Knowledge representation methods. Concepts of incomplete and tentative knowledge. Expert systems. Inference rules in systems with rule-based representation of knowledge. Fuzzy logic, evolutionary algorithms. Biomedical engineering systems and applications for diagnostics, therapy, rehabilitation and prosthetics of various organs and body parts – examples and general design rules.
Domain range I: electronics and computers in medicine
Backgrounds of theoretical neurocybernetics, goals and methods of brain modeling, various types of artificial neural networks with applications, basics of cognition sciences. Models of biological and technical perception systems (auditory and visual systems in human), regulatory systems (the concept of homeostasis and structure of management systems), and control systems (control and coordination of motor system, control with the gamma loop, cooperation of synergic and antagonist muscles). Population models.
Computer methods for biomedical signal processing and methods for automated analysis and image recognition. Selected issues of artificial intelligence in biomedical applications.
Methods applied in biological and physiological measurements, monitoring of blood circulation, muscle stress, fetal wellbeing, brain function, visual and auditory perception. Examples of digital supportive tools for signal and image-based diagnostics. Multidimensional and multimodal signals. Computer methods for feature extraction and objects / events classification. Methods of surveillance of human in daily living activities (assisted living), ordination and particular characteristics of sensors. Sensor networks. Data security and privacy-related problems in physiological measurement and data transmission. Hospital information systems, therapy planning automatic and telematic triage. Problems of telemedicine: data secyrity and reliability, seamless data access, aspects of mobility and energetic efficiency of equipment. Brain-Computer Interfaces: paradigms and particular characteristics of BCIs.
Domain range II: biomaterials engineering
Basic concepts and definitions: biomaterial, biocompatibility, bioactivity, medical device, implant, transplant, artificial organ, hybrid organ. The relationship between the structure, properties and manufacturing methods of different types of biomaterials: metallic, polymeric, ceramic and composite. Classification of biomaterials by: material type (metals and alloys, ceramics, polymers, carbons, composites, hybrids) and behavior in the biological environment (biostable, degradable, resorbable). Application of metals, polymers, carbons, composites, calcium phosphate bioceramics, bioactive glasses in medicine, e.g. in surgery, orthopedics, cardiac surgery, dentistry. Surface engineering and surface modification techniques. Methods of analysis: structure, microstructure and properties of biomaterials. Biological response to the implant. Biomaterials testing in vitro and in vivo. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Domain range III: biomechanics
Basic concepts and definitions: Biomechanics and mechanobiology. Fields and directions of research in biomechanics. Structure – function relationship of tissues. Research fields in biomechanics, Division of joints due to type of movement, Biotribiology and issues related to the exploitation of joints and tissues, Bones – structure and mechanical properties, Models of mechanical properties of bones, Functions and properties of articular cartilage, Models of articular cartilage, Structure and properties of connective tissues based on tendon example, Models describing tendon properties, Structure and functions of the spine, Natural and synthetic biomaterials, Modeling of biomaterials as a viscoelastic elements, Experimental methods in tissue biomechanics (including measurements of stress, strain, displacement etc.). Basics of mechanics of tissue and other biological materials – ultimate tensile, compression, bending and torsional strength.
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